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Entheogene sind psychoaktive Substanzen, die Veränderungen der Wahrnehmung, der Stimmung, des Bewusstseins, der Kognition oder des Verhaltens zum Zwecke der spirituellen Entwicklung oder in anderen sakralen Zusammenhängen hervorrufen. Anthropologische Studien haben ergeben, dass Entheogene in vielen Teilen der Welt zu religiösen, magischen, schamanischen oder spirituellen Zwecken verwendet werden. Entheogene werden traditionell als Ergänzung zu vielen verschiedenen Praktiken verwendet, die auf das Erreichen von Transzendenz abzielen, darunter Wahrsagerei, Meditation, Yoga, sensorischer Entzug, Askese, Gebet, Trance, Rituale, Gesang, Nachahmung von Klängen, Hymnen wie Peyote-Lieder, Trommeln und ekstatischer Tanz. [Die psychedelische Erfahrung wird oft mit nicht-alltäglichen Formen des Bewusstseins verglichen, wie sie in der Meditation, bei Nahtoderfahrungen und mystischen Erfahrungen erlebt werden. Die Auflösung des Egos wird oft als ein Hauptmerkmal der psychedelischen Erfahrung beschrieben.

„Erst die Theorie entscheidet darüber, was man beobachten kann“ ~ Albert Einstein

Das erkenntnistheoretische Netz der Wissenschaft
Der Titel "Das erkenntnistheoretische Netz der Wissenschaft" ist epistemologisch (d.h. erkenntnistheoretisch) zu verstehen und bezieht sich auf eine zeitlose wissenschaftsphilosophische Parabel des englischen Astrophysikers Sir Arthur Eddington (*1882; †1944) . Danach ähnelt der sich im "Mainstream" befindliche Typus des Naturwissenschaftlers einem Fischer, der nach wiederholtem Auswerfen seines Fischernetzes zu der (logisch invaliden) Konklusio gelangt, daß alle Fische im Meer größer als fünf Zentimeter seien. Auf die valide Kritik, daß die Maschenweite seines Netzes genau fünf Zentimeter betrage, antwortet er: "Was ich mit meinem Netz nicht fangen kann, ist kein Fisch. Jeder der was anderes behaupte sei ein nicht ernstzunehmender Metaphysiker".
Per Analogiam, ist dieser Fischer ein prototypisches Exemplar eines Wissenschaftlers der dem dominanten Paradigma des neopositivistischen reduktionistischen Wissenschaftsverständnisses anhängt (ohne sich dessen selbst bewusst zu sein; cf. Mach, Popper, Wittgenstein, Oppenheim, Carnap, Neurath, etc. pp). Ihm mangelt es an Selbstreflexion und wissenschaftsphilosophischen Verständniss. In seiner Hubris geht er davon aus das nur von Ihm quantifizierbare Aspekte der Wirklichkeit wissenschaftliche Relevanz haben. Er vergisst das sein Messinstrumentarium nur ein sehr begrenztes Spektrum der vorhanden Daten quantifizieren kann. Eine Verbesserung des Instrumentariums (z.B.: erweiterung der Sinne/Perzeption) würde Ihm erlauben neue Aspekte der Wirklichkeit "wahrzunehmen". Seine epistemologische naivität verhindert dieses Unterfangen jedoch...

Sir Arthur Eddington’s Fischkundler (Ichthyologe): Eine zeitlose wissenschaftphilosophische Parabel
Nehmen wir an, ein Ichthyologe erforscht das Leben im Meer. Er wirft ein Netz ins Wasser und holt eine fischige Auswahl heraus. Er begutachtet seinen Fang und geht in der üblichen Weise eines Wissenschaftlers vor, um zu systematisieren, was er offenbart. Er kommt zu zwei Verallgemeinerungen:

1. Kein Meerestier ist weniger als zwei Zentimeter lang.

2. Alle Meerestiere haben Kiemen. Beides trifft auf seinen Fang zu, und er nimmt vorsichtshalber an, dass sie wahr bleiben, egal wie oft er ihn wiederholt.

In der Anwendung dieser Analogie steht der Fang für die Gesamtheit des Wissens, das die physikalische Wissenschaft ausmacht, und das Netz für die sensorische und intellektuelle Ausrüstung, die wir bei der Gewinnung dieses Wissens verwenden. Das Auswerfen des Netzes entspricht der Beobachtung; denn Wissen, das nicht durch Beobachtung gewonnen wurde oder werden konnte, wird nicht in die physikalische Wissenschaft aufgenommen. Ein Betrachter mag einwenden, dass die erste Verallgemeinerung falsch ist. "Es gibt viele Meerestiere unter zwei Zentimetern Länge, nur ist dein Netz nicht geeignet, sie zu fangen." Der Ikthyologe weist diesen Einwand verächtlich zurück. "Alles, was mein Netz nicht fangen kann, liegt ipso facto außerhalb des Bereichs ikthyologischen Wissens. Kurz gesagt: "Was mein Netz nicht fangen kann, ist kein Fisch." Oder - um die Analogie zu übersetzen - "Wenn Sie nicht einfach nur raten, behaupten Sie ein Wissen über das physikalische Universum, das auf andere Weise als durch die Methoden der physikalischen Wissenschaft entdeckt wurde und zugegebenermaßen durch solche Methoden nicht überprüfbar ist. Sie sind ein Metaphysiker. Bah!"

Prof. David Nichols
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Prof. David Nichols
This talk presented a brief overview of what psychedelics are, and several significant events in this field in the past four decades. A comparison will be made between molecular structures, and how they were related to the structure of the neurotransmitter serotonin.
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Referenzen
Übersicht
https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/entheogen


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